ABC: Autism, Behavior, and Communication—Using Visual Support (Video #161)

ABC: Autism, Behavior, and Communication—Using Visual Support (Video #161)


>>>WELCOME TO THIS EDITION OF APPLES MAGAZINE.
I AM MARY SMITH, A FAMILY RESOURCE SPECIALIST WITH ILLINOIS STARNET.
FREQUENTLY, THE BEHAVIOR DIFFERENCES IN OUR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH AUTISM IS DIRECTLY RELATED
TO THE CHILD’S INABILITY TO EFFECTIVELY COMMUNICATE OR UNDERSTAND COMMUNICATION.
RESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT BY STRUCTURING THE ENVIRONMENT FOR VISUALLY SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION,
THERE IS A SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN COMMUNICATION AND ULTIMATELY THE BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN WITH
AUTISM. THIS PAST FALL, MARIA HADLEY, AN EARLY CHILDHOOD
RESOURCE SPECIALIST WITH STARNET, HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO SIT DOWN WITH LINDA HODGDON
WHO IS AN INTERNATIONALLY RENOWNED PRESENTER AND AUTHOR.
JOIN US AS LINDA AND MARIA DISCUSS THE LINK BETWEEN COMMUNICATION, BEHAVIOR AND THE USE
OF VISUAL SUPPORTS.>>LINDA, IT IS GREAT TO HAVE YOU BACK WITH
US FOR OUR SECOND VISUAL SUPPORT APPLES VIDEO MAGAZINE.
IN PREPARATION FOR THIS INTERVIEW WITH YOU, I WAS READING THROUGH YOUR BOOK THAT YOU AUTHORED,
“SOLVING BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN AUTISM,” AND I WANTED TO SHARE WITH EVERYONE A QUOTE THAT
I HAVE TAKEN FROM YOUR BOOK. AND THAT IS, “COMMUNICATION EMERGES AS AN
INTEGRAL PART OF THE PROBLEM OR IT EVOLVES A AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THE SOLUTION.”
I FOUND THIS TO BE SUCH A PROFOUND STATEMENT.>>YES, IT IS BECAUSE WHEN PEOPLE ARE TALKING
ABOUT DEALING WITH BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS, THE THING THAT THEY TRY TO FOCUS ON IS GETTING
THAT BEHAVIOR PROBLEM TO CHANGE. AND IT IS VERY EASY FOR PEOPLE NOT TO SIT
BACK AND THINK ABOUT WHAT IS THE REAL CAUSE OF THAT BEHAVIOR PROBLEM.
WHEN WE LOOK AT WHAT THE CAUSES OF BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS ARE FOR A LOT OF THESE CHILDREN,
COMMUNICATION EMERGES AS A CAUSE OF THE PROBLEM. AND IT CAN BE — BE A PROBLEM BECAUSE CHILDREN
DON’T EXPRESS THEMSELVES VERY WELL, BUT IT ALSO CAN BE A PROBLEM BECAUSE CHILDREN DON’T
UNDERSTAND. SO ONCE WE FIGURE OUT WHAT THE CAUSE OF THE
BEHAVIOR PROBLEM IS, THEN WE CAN BEGIN TO FIND SOLUTIONS, AND COMMUNICATION EVOLVE AS
A PART OF THE SOLUTION, TOO, HELPING CHILDREN TO UNDERSTAND BETTER OR HELPING
THEM TO BE ABLE TO EXPRESS THEMSELVES BETTER.>>LET’S BEGIN THEN BY TALKING ABOUT BEHAVIOR
AND WHAT IT IS THAT WE KNOW ABOUT BEHAVIOR SPECIFICALLY.
>>WELL, BEHAVIOR IS EVERYTHING THAT WE DO, EATING AND WALKING AND SLEEPING AND LEARNING
AND TALKING, YOU KNOW, THERE IS BEHAVIOR IS A PART OF OUR BEING.
AND, YET, PEOPLE REALLY FOCUS ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS.
AND A VERY SIMPLE DEFINITION OF A BEHAVIOR PROBLEM IS WHEN CHILDREN ARE NOT DOING WHAT
I WANT THEM TO DO OR THEY ARE DOING WHAT I DON’T WANT THEM TO DO.
NOW, AS TYPICAL CHILDREN ARE GROWING UP, THERE ARE ALL KINDS OF THINGS THAT THEY HAVE CHALLENGES
WITH, GOING TO SLEEP AT NIGHT AND TOILET TRAINING AND THROWING FOOD ON THE FLOOR AND PINCHING
THEIR NEIGHBORS AND ALL THOSE KINDS OF THINGS ARE PART–
>>TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT.>>NORMAL DEVELOPMENT.
BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE ARE TALKING ABOUT CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS IS THEY WILL HAVE
THE SAME KINDS OF BEHAVIOR CHALLENGES THAT OTHER CHILDREN HAVE, BUT THEY MAY ALSO HAVE
SOME ADDITIONAL ISSUES THAT THEY HAVE TO DEAL WITH.
>>SO AS WE TALK ABOUT BEHAVIOR, CAN YOU DEFINE FOR US WHAT IS CONSIDERED — WHAT IS CONSIDERED
PROBLEM BEHAVIOR, PROBLEMATIC BEHAVIOR?>>WELL, THERE IS A LOT OF ATTITUDES AND OPINIONS
ABOUT THAT, FOR SURE! ONE THING IS THAT IF A SPECIFIC CHILD DOESN’T
DO THINGS LIKE OTHER CHILDREN HIS AGE DO THEM, THAT MIGHT BE CONSIDERED A BEHAVIOR PROBLEM.
WHEN THEY BEHAVE IN WAYS THAT ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR AN ENVIRONMENT OR THEY BEHAVE IN WAYS
THAT ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR A SITUATION, THAT MIGHT BE CONSIDERED A BEHAVIOR PROBLEM.
SITUATIONS WHERE THEY MIGHT CAUSE HARM TO THEMSELVES OR TO OTHER PEOPLE WOULD BE CONSIDERED
A BEHAVIOR PROBLEM. WHEN THEY ARE NOT DOING WHAT I WANT THEM TO
DO, IT MAY BE CALLED A BEHAVIOR PROBLEM. AND THE CHALLENGES THAT YOU AND I MIGHT NOT
IDENTIFY THE SAME THINGS AS BEING BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS, WE MIGHT HAVE DIFFERENT ATTITUDES
ABOUT WHAT IS A BEHAVIOR PROBLEM.>>BECAUSE WHAT IS ACCEPTABLE TO ME MAY BE
TOTALLY UNACCEPTABLE TO YOU.>>EXACTLY.
EXACTLY. THE ENVIRONMENT CAN BE A HUGE DIFFERENCE,
TOO. WHAT IS ACCEPTABLE AT HOME MIGHT NOT BE ACCEPTABLE
AT SCHOOL.>>RIGHT.
>>BECAUSE EACH ENVIRONMENT WILL TOLERATE DIFFERENT THINGS.
>>I THINK THIS TAKES US INTO SOME OF THOSE VARIABLES THAT WE HAVE TO OVERCOME WHEN IDENTIFYING
WHAT IS BEHAVIOR. SO CAN YOU DISCUSS SOME OF THOSE VARIABLES?
>>WELL, ONE VARIABLE IS THE STUDENT HIMSELF. WHAT HIS AGE IS AND WHAT HIS SKILL LEVEL IS.
I ALWAYS — WHEN PEOPLE TALK TO ME ABOUT BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS, THERE ARE TWO QUESTIONS I ALWAYS
ASK. ONE IS WHAT IS THE STUDENT’S AGE, AND THE
OTHER ONE IS WHAT IS HIS SKILL LEVEL. WHAT WE NEED TO REMEMBER IS THAT TWO YEAR
OLDS WILL ACT LIKE TWO YEAR OLDS, AND 13 YEAR OLDS WILL ACT LIKE 13 YEAR OLDS REGARDLESS
OF WHETHER THEY HAVE LEARNING CHALLENGES OR NOT.
SKILL LEVEL IS A REALLY IMPORTANT THING TO CONSIDER.
IF A CHILD IS TEN YEARS OLD, BUT HE IS FUNCTIONING AT A TWO YEAR OLD LEVEL, HE WILL DEMONSTRATE
DIFFERENT BEHAVIOR THAN A TEN YEAR OLD WHO IS FUNCTIONING AT A TEN YEAR OLD BEHAVIOR.
SO WHEN WE BEGIN TO LOOK AT BEHAVIOR CHALLENGES, WE HAVE TO CONSIDER THOSE TWO THINGS, WHAT
IS HIS AGE, WHAT IS TYPICAL FOR THAT AGE, AND THEN WHAT IS HIS SKILL LEVEL BECAUSE HIS
BEHAVIOR WILL REFLECT THE BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN IN THAT SKILL LEVEL.
>>SO WHY DO THESE BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS EXIST? WHAT ARE SOME OF THE COMMON CAUSES TO BEHAVIOR?
>>WELL, FOR ONE THING, OUR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS HAVE THE SAME KINDS OF ISSUES
THAT OTHER CHILDREN HAVE. THEY MIGHT BE HUNGRY OR THEY MIGHT BE TIRED
OR THEY DON’T FEEL GOOD TODAY OR THEY HAVE, YOU KNOW, SPARKIE PERSONALITIES AND THEY JUST
DON’T FOLLOW REAL WELL WHAT OTHER PEOPLE WANT THEM TO DO!
>>RIGHT.>>I MEAN THAT’S ONE THING. AND THEN THERE
MAYBE SOME OTHER SPECIAL THINGS, FOR EXAMPLE, CHILDREN ON THE AUTISM SPECTRUM ARE KNOWN
BECAUSE MANY OF THEM HAVE WHAT WE WOULD CALL SENSORY PROBLEMS OR SENSORY DIFFERENCES.
WHAT THAT MEANS IS THAT THEY MAY BE EITHER MORE SENSITIVE OR LESS SENSITIVE TO SENSORY
INPUT, YOU KNOW, SOUNDS, SIGHT, TOUCH, TASTE, THAT KIND OF THING, COMPARED TO OTHER CHILDREN.
SO SOMETHING THAT WE MAY CALL A BEHAVIOR PROBLEM MAY REALLY BE A SITUATION WHERE THEY ARE RESPONDING
TO SOME OF THE SENSORY ELEMENTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT, MAYBE SOMETHING IS TOO LOUD OR MAYBE SOMETHING
IS BOTHERING THEM, PEOPLE ARE TOO CLOSE TO THEM OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT.
I THINK OUR OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS ARE VERY IMPORTANT MEMBERS OF THE TEAM WHEN WE ARE
TALKING ABOUT DEALING WITH BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS ESPECIALLY FOR THOSE CHILDREN WITH AUTISM
BECAUSE THEY CAN GIVE US SOME REAL INSIGHT INTO SOME OF THE SENSORY ISSUES THAT A CHILD
MAYBE DEALING WITH THAT CAN AFFECT THEIR BEHAVIOR.>>LINDA, ALL WE HAVE TALKED ABOUT THUS FAR
IS PROBLEMS, PROBLEMS, PROBLEMS, PROBLEMS, PROBLEMS WITH COMMUNICATION, PROBLEMS WITH
BEHAVIOR. CAN YOU IDENTIFY WHAT ARE SOME STRENGTHS OF THESE CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER?
>>SURE, I CAN. THE REAL STRENGTH THAT THESE STUDENTS HAVE
IS THAT THEY TEND TO BE VISUAL LEARNERS. THEY TEND TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THEY SEE BETTER
THAN WHAT THEY HEAR. SO THESE CHILDREN REALLY TEND TO BE TUNED
IN ON WATCHING THINGS IN THE ENVIRONMENT. IF YOU USE THAT STRENGTH AS A COMMUNICATION
TOOL, YOU CAN BEGIN TO MAKE SOME REAL PROGRESS IN TERMS OF HELPING THEM MANAGE THE ENVIRONMENTS
THAT THEY ARE IN AND HELPING THEM MANAGE THE SITUATIONS THAT THEY ARE IN.
NOW WHAT ARE VISUAL TOOLS? OKAY, ONE VISUAL — ONE CATEGORY OF VISUAL
TOOLS IS THOSE VISUAL THINGS THAT YOU NATURALLY HAVE THE IN ENVIRONMENT, THE EXIT SIGN ON
THE DOOR, THE BATHROOM SIGN.>>THEY ARE EVERY WHERE!
>>A TYPICAL CLASSROOM YOU HAVE SOME VISUAL THINGS HANGING UP ON THE WALLS AND THINGS
LIKE THAT. SO YOU USE THOSE.
THE OBJECTS THAT YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT INSTEAD OF JUST TALKING, IF YOU PICK UP THE OBJECT
THAT YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT AND HOLD THAT UP AS A REFERENCE, THAT CAN HELP STUDENTS.
SO USING THOSE NATURAL THINGS IN THE ENVIRONMENT AS COMMUNICATION TOOLS IS IMPORTANT.
ANOTHER COMMUNICATION TOOL IS YOUR OWN BODY, YOUR OWN BODY LANGUAGE, YOUR FACIAL EXPRESSIONS,
YOUR GESTURES, POINTING, YOUR BODY MOVEMENTS AND THINGS LIKE THAT ARE VERY IMPORTANT COMMUNICATION
INFORMATION. SO USING YOUR BODY TO SUPPORT YOUR COMMUNICATION
CAN BE REALLY IMPORTANT. THEN WE HAVE ANOTHER CLASSIFICATION WHICH
WOULD BE THOSE VISUAL THINGS THAT YOU AND I USE IN OUR OWN LIVES.
DO YOU USE A CALENDAR?>>OH, ABSOLUTELY.
>>A DAY PLANNER, PALM PILOT.>>ABSOLUTELY.
>>WRITE A LIST OF THINGS TO BUY AT THE GROCERY STORE.
>>SURE. MANY FORMS.
>>RIGHT. WE DO THOSE THINGS FOR OURSELVES, AND IF WE DO THOSE THINGS FOR OUR STUDENTS,
TOO. BUT YOU SEE, FOR EXAMPLE, IN THE TYPICAL CLASSROOM,
YOU MIGHT HAVE A CALENDAR, BUT YOU USE THAT CALENDAR TO TALK ABOUT WHAT DAY OF THE WEEK
IT IS, WHAT YEAR IT IS AND IF IT IS RAINY, OR CLOUDY OR SUNNY OUTSIDE. BUT THINK ABOUT
HOW YOU AND I PUT OTHER IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON OUR OWN PERSONAL CALENDERS, A DAY THAT
THERE IS NO SCHOOL OR I HAVE TO REMEMBER TO BRING BROWNIES ON TUESDAY OR I HAVE TO BRING
MONEY BECAUSE WE ARE GOING TO HAVE A SPECIAL ACTIVITY ON A CERTAIN DAY.
>>OR SOMEBODY’S BIRTHDAY! (LAUGHING)
>>EXACTLY. SO YOU THINK ABOUT PUTTING THAT IMPORTANT
INFORMATION ON A CALENDAR TO HELP CHILDREN ANTICIPATE AND PREPARE FOR LIFE.
AND THEN THE LAST CLASS OF VISUAL TOOLS THAT WE CAN USE WITH CHILDREN ARE THINGS THAT ARE
VERY SPECIALLY DESIGNED TO MEET VERY SPECIFIC NEEDS.
FOR EXAMPLE, IF A CHILD KEEPS TAKING HIS SHOES OFF ALL THE TIME, WE MIGHT CREATE A VISUAL
TOOL THAT HELPS HIM TO REMEMBER TO PUT–LEAVE HIS SHOES ON.
>>SHOES ON.>>RIGHT.
OR IF HE IS HAVING TROUBLE WITH TRANSITIONS, AND TRANSITIONS CAN BE REALLY DIFFICULT FOR
KIDS, SO WE MIGHT DEVELOP SOME KIND OF A VISUAL
TOOL THAT WILL HELP HIM PREPARE FOR A TRANSITION OR USE SOMETHING LIKE A TIMER TO HELP HIM
KNOW THAT IN TEN MINUTES IT WILL BE TIME FOR SOMETHING TO CHANGE.
SO THERE ARE LOTS OF DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF VISUAL TOOLS THAT WE CAN USE TO GIVE KIDS
INFORMATION TO HELP THEM UNDERSTAND WHAT IS GOING ON IN THEIR WORLD.
>>LET’S TALK NOW ABOUT HOW THOSE VISUAL SUPPORTS AND TOOLS CAN BE USED TO SOLVE BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS.
IN YOUR BOOK, YOU HAVE ORGANIZED THEM INTO FIVE DIFFERENT CATEGORIES.
THE FIRST BEING THAT OF VISUAL TOOLS TO IMPROVE UNDERSTANDING.
AND YOU STATED BEFORE THAT TRANSITIONS AND THOSE TIMES ARE VERY DIFFICULT FOR CHILDREN.
IT IS THOSE COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWNS THAT WE OFTENTIMES SEE CHILDREN EXHIBITING WHAT
WE DEFINE AS INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR. WHAT ARE SOME KIND OF TOOLS THAT YOU WOULD
RECOMMEND THAT WE USE TO HELP THE CHILD UNDERSTAND?>>THINK ABOUT THINGS THAT YOU TELL STUDENTS
VERBALLY, AND THEN THINK ABOUT CHANGING SO THAT YOU ARE GIVING THEM THAT SAME INFORMATION
VISUALLY. A SCHEDULE, A DAILY SCHEDULE CAN GIVE THEM
INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT IS HAPPENING DURING THE DAY.
FIRST THIS ACTIVITY, THEN THIS ONE, THEN THIS ONE.
BUT WHAT HAPPENS IF WE ARE SUPPOSED TO GO TO GYM AT 2:00 AND TODAY WE CAN’T GO TO GYM
AT 2:00 FOR SOME REASON? WE CAN PUT ON THAT CALENDAR THAT SOMETHING
IS CHANGING. VISUALLY.
WE CAN PUT A NO SIGN, WRITE A LITTLE NOTE SO THAT WE ARE VISUALLY TELLING THEM SOMETHING
IS GOING TO CHANGE. THE PROBLEM IS IF WE JUST TELL THEM VERBALLY,
THEY MIGHT NOT UNDERSTAND. I AM THINKING OF A BOY THAT I WORKED WITH
WHOSE MOM WENT BACK TO WORK PART TIME. SO SOME DAYS HE WENT HOME FROM SCHOOL, AND
HIS MOM WAS THERE. SOME DAYS HE WENT HOME FROM SCHOOL AND A BABY-SITTER
WAS THERE. SOME DAYS HIS GRANDPA PICKED HIM UP FROM SCHOOL.
CAN YOU IMAGINE THE STRESS LEVEL OF THIS CHILD? HE WOULD COME TO SCHOOL AND HE WOULD BE SO
ANXIOUS BECAUSE MAMA GO TO WORK TODAY, MAMA GO TO WORK TODAY,
DADDY, GRANDPA, BABY-SITTER ALL THAT STUFF. SO MOM AND TEACHER WORKED IT OUT TO CREATE
A CALENDAR TO SHOW HIM EACH DAY WOULD BE THERE. THE TEACHER PUT THAT BY HIS DESK.
WHAT SHE NOTICED AFTER A VERY SHORT TIME, HE KEPT LOOKING AT THAT CALENDAR OVER AND
OVER AGAIN. IT AFFIRMED FOR HIM WHAT WAS GOING TO BE HAPPENING.
HIS ANXIETY LEVEL WENT DOWN AND THEN HE WAS ABLE TO DO WHAT HE WAS SUPPOSED TO DO IN SCHOOL.
SO IT GAVE HIM THE INFORMATION THAT HE NEEDED TO HELP HIM RELAX AND DO WHAT ELSE HE WAS
SUPPOSED TO DO IN SCHOOL.>>SURE.
AND IF WE COULD TALK A LITTLE MORE ABOUT SCHEDULES. YOU NOTED A CLASSROOM — A VISUAL CLASSROOM
SCHEDULE. WHAT ABOUT MINI SCHEDULES, SCHEDULES WITHIN
SCHEDULES.>>A CLASSROOM SCHEDULE WOULD BE A BIG PICTURE
LOOK AT WHAT IS GOING TO BE HAPPENING DURING THE DAY.
IN THE MORNING, WE ARE GOING TO HAVE CIRCLE TIME, AND THEN WE HAVE WORK TIME AND THEN
RECESS AND LUNCH AND THEN IN THE AFTERNOON WE GO TO GYM AND THEN WE GO HOME, THAT KIND
OF THING. BUT THEN YOU TAKE A SPECIAL PART OF THE DAY FOR EXAMPLE, WORK TIME, AND THEN
YOU MIGHT MAKE A MINI SCHEDULE FOR THAT SECTION OF THE DAY SO THAT YOU SAY DURING WORK TIME,
FIRST WE WILL DO THIS ACTIVITY, THEN WE ARE GOING TO DO THIS ACTIVITY AND THEN WE ARE
GOING TO DO THIS. IF YOU PUT ALL THE LITTLE ACTIVITIES IN THE
DAILY SCHEDULE, IT BECOMES CUMBERSOME AND IT WOULD BE TOO HARD TO FOLLOW.
BUT THE MINI SCHEDULE TAKES A PART — IT TAKES A BIG ACTIVITY AND BREAKS IT DOWN INTO SMALL
SECTIONS. AND THEN THAT HELPS CHILDREN WORK THROUGH
THOSE SMALLER STEPS DURING THAT TIME.>>YOU ALSO NOTED CALENDARS IS ONE OF THOSE
TOOLS. HOW WOULD A CALENDAR BE USED FOR A CHILD WITH
AUTISM IN AN EARLY CHILDHOOD CLASSROOM?>>GIVING THEM INFORMATION, GIVING THEM INFORMATION,
NOT JUST MEMORIZING THE DAYS OF THE WEEK, BUT HELPING THEM UNDERSTAND EACH DAY WHAT
IS GOING TO BE HAPPENING, AND WE MENTIONED HOLIDAYS, BIRTHDAYS, SPECIAL EVENTS IN THE
CHILD’S LIFE, SUCH THINGS AS THE TEACHER IS GOING TO BE GONE ON TUESDAY, AND WE ARE GOING
TO HAVE A SUBSTITUTE. ANYTHING THAT COULD BE DIFFERENT OR OUT OF
THE ORDINARY OR WOULD CHANGE THE REGULAR ROUTINE IS SOMETHING THAT COULD BE PUT ON A CALENDAR
TO HELP A CHILD UNDERSTAND AND PREPARE FOR SOMETHING THAT IS GOING TO CHANGE.
>>WE WILL MOVE INTO THE SECOND CATEGORY WHICH IS STRATEGIES TO HELP CHILDREN CONTROL THEIR
ENVIRONMENT. AND YOU HAD STATED THAT OFTENTIMES IT IS VERY
DIFFICULT FOR A CHILD WITH AUTISM TO APPROPRIATELY COMMUNICATE THEIR WANTS AND NEEDS.
AND THAT’S IN AN EFFORT TO GAIN SOME CONTROL. FOR MOST CHILDREN, THESE SKILLS ARE LEARNED
VERY NATURALLY, BUT FOR OUR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH AUTISM, THEY REALLY HAVE TO BE TAUGHT,
SPECIFICALLY TAUGHT.>>LOTS OF TIMES THEY DO.
>>SURE.>>AND PART OF THE PROBLEM IS THE ADULTS.
SEE, BECAUSE THE ADULTS WANT TO BE IN CHARGE. THE ADULTS WANT TO BE IN CONTROL.
AND SO THE ADULTS MAKE A LOT OF DECISIONS FOR THE KIDS.
AND ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL.>>GIVE THEM NO CONTROL.
>>RIGHT. RIGHT.
SO ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE CAN DO, AND THIS IS FOR TYPICALLY DEVELOPING CHILDREN, TOO.
WHEN CHILDREN ARE ABOUT TWO YEARS OLD OR THREE YEARS OLD, YOU BEGIN TO GIVE THEM CHOICES,
BEGIN TO GIVE THEM AN OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE CHOICES. BUT WHAT YOU CAN DO AS THE ADULT,
IS YOU CAN CONTROL WHICH CHOICES THEY HAVE TO CHOOSE FROM.
WELL, IT IS THE SAME THING FOR THESE CHILDREN. YOU BEGIN TO SET UP SITUATIONS WHERE THEY
CAN MAKE SOME CHOICES. SOMETIMES THEY WANT SOMETHING THAT IS NOT
APPROPRIATE FOR RIGHT NOW OR THEY WANT TO DO SOMETHING OR GO SOME PLACE, THEY CAN’T
RIGHT NOW. BUT INSTEAD OF JUST SAYING NO YOU CAN’T DO
THAT, THINK ABOUT HOW YOU CAN TURN THAT INTO A CHOICE MAKING ACTIVITY SO YOU CAN SAY WELL
RIGHT NOW WE CAN DO THIS OR WE CAN DO THIS OR YOU CAN PLAY WITH THIS TOY OR YOU CAN PLAY
WITH THIS TOY, GIVING THEM AN OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE A SELECTION, GIVES THEM A FEELING
OF POWER, AND THEY MAY SELECT SOMETHING THAT THEY WOULDN’T NORMALLY CHOOSE, BUT BECAUSE
THEY HAVE AN OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE A CHOICE, THAT GIVES THEM A FEELING OF POWER AND CONTROL
AND SO IT IS OKAY. SO WE HAVE GIVEN THOSE CHILDREN A CHOICE,
BUT WHAT IF THE CHOICES — BOTH CHOICES THAT WE PRESENTED, THEY WASN’T NEITHER?
HOW DO WE GIVE THE CHILD THEN THE SKILLS TO SAY YES, BUT NO THANK YOU?
HOW DO WE TEACH A CHILD TO PROTEST? HOW DO WE TEACH THEM TO SAY NO?
>>OKAY, DEPENDS IF THE CHILD HAS VERBAL SKILLS OR IF HE IS NOT VERBAL.
THERE ARE A LOT OF WAYS PEOPLE CAN PROTEST. CAN YOU PROTEST BY PUSHING SOMETHING AWAY.
YOU CAN PROTEST BY SAYING NO. YOU CAN PROTEST BY MAKING ANOTHER CHOICE.
BUT THE BOTTOM LINE IS THE ADULTS NEED TO GET TO A POINT WHERE THEY FEEL COMFORTABLE
GIVING THE STUDENT AN OPPORTUNITY TO PROTEST. SEE, TYPICALLY DEVELOPING CHILDREN WILL PROTEST
ALL THE TIME. THEY WILL SAY “I DON’T WANT TO DO THAT” OR
THEY WILL MUMBLE AND GRUMBLE AND THINGS LIKE THAT.
BUT PEOPLE ARE AFRAID TO TEACH CHILDREN WITH COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES TO PROTEST BECAUSE
THEN THEY ARE AFRAID THEY ARE GOING TO LOSE CONTROL.
AND, YET, ONE THE MOST POWERFUL THINGS WE CAN DO IS TEACH APPROPRIATE PROTEST BECAUSE
YOU KNOW WHAT, THEY ARE PROTESTING ANYWAY WITH THEIR BEHAVIOR.
AND THAT’S WHERE A LOT OF OUR ACTING OUT BEHAVIORS CAN COME, THE TEMPER TANTRUMS AND THROWING
THINGS AND SCREAMING.>>AND AGGRESSION.
>>ALL OF THAT KIND OF THING CAN BE PROTESTING BECAUSE I DON’T WANT TO DO WHAT YOU WANT ME
TO DO. WELL, INSTEAD OF SETTING UP A POWER STRUGGLE,
IF WE CAN TURN THINGS AROUND AND TURN THEM INTO CHOICE MAKING ACTIVITIES, THAT CAN REALLY
HELP. NOW WHEN YOU WORK WITH A CHILD FOR AWHILE,
YOU BEGIN TO LEARN WHAT HIS PREFERENCES ARE.>>AND WHAT HE IS WILLING TO WORK FOR.
>>AND WHAT HE IS WILLING TO WORK FOR, EXACTLY. IF YOU DON’T KNOW HIM VERY WELL, YOU HAVE
TO ASK THE PARENTS OR THE TEACHER THAT WORKED WITH HIM BEFORE.
BUT TO HAVE SUCCESS, YOU NEED TO HAVE A GOOD LIST OF THINGS THAT HE REALLY DESIRES, THAT
HE WILL WORK FOR, THAT WILL BE WONDERFUL FOR HIM.
AND THEN WHAT YOU CAN BEGIN TO DO IS DEVELOP A SYSTEM WHERE FIRST YOU DO THIS, AND THEN
YOU DO THIS. BUT FIRST WE DO SOMETHING THAT I WANT YOU
TO DO AND THEN YOU CAN DO SOMETHING THAT YOU WANT TO DO.
AND THAT CAN WORK REALLY WELL BECAUSE CHILDREN, IF THEY FEEL LIKE THEY CAN GET WHAT EVENTUALLY
THEY WANT, THEY WILL BE WILLING TO PUT UP WITH SOMETHING THAT THEY DON’T WANT.
>>SURE. SURE.
SO NEGOTIATION. NEGOTIATION IS VERY IMPORTANT.
IT IS A LIFE LONG SKILL. HOW DO WE TEACH CHILDREN WITH AUTISM TO NEGOTIATE
USING VISUALS?>>UM, THINK ABOUT WHAT YOU WOULD SAY TO NEGOTIATE.
I DON’T WANT TO. CAN I DO THAT LATER?
CAN I DO THIS INSTEAD?>>NOT NOW.
>>YEAH, NOT NOW. CAN I DO SOMETHING ELSE INSTEAD?
THINK ABOUT THOSE THINGS THAT WOULD BE GOOD NEGOTIATION LANGUAGE, HAVE A VISUAL REPRESENTATION
OF THAT SO THAT YOU CAN USE THAT AS A PICTURE BOARD OR COMMUNICATION BOARD
AND TEACH THE CHILD HOW TO USE IT. THE THING IS THAT OTHER CHILDREN WILL LEARN
HOW TO DO THAT BY OSMOSIS. THEY WILL LEARN HOW TO DO THAT BY IMITATION.
THEY WILL LEARN HOW TO DO THAT BY TRIAL AND ERROR.
>>AND MODELING.>>MODELING WHAT THEY SEE OTHER PEOPLE DOING,
RIGHT. BUT THESE CHILDREN MAY HAVE TO BE SPECIFICALLY
TAUGHT HOW TO DO THAT.>>SURE.
RIGHT.>>BUT IT IS AN IMPORTANT THING TO TEACH.
>>ABSOLUTELY.>>BECAUSE IF THEY CAN LEARN TO DO A LITTLE
BIT OF NEGOTIATING, THAT WILL HELP THEM TO GET THROUGH SITUATIONS THAT ARE NOT DESIRABLE
FOR THEM. YOU KNOW, IT IS REALLY INTERESTING, I TALK
TO A LOT OF TEACHERS ABOUT CHILDREN THAT HAVE BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN THEIR CLASSROOMS, AND
ONE OF THE THINGS THAT AS WE TALK ABOUT THE CHILDREN, WHAT THEY WILL EXPRESS IS THAT HE
DOESN’T LIKE TO DO THIS. HE DOESN’T LIKE TO DO THIS.
HE DOESN’T LIKE TO DO THIS. AND I THINK, WOW, IF A CHILD IS SITTING IN
A CLASSROOM ALL DAY, DOING ALL KINDS OF THINGS HE DOESN’T LIKE, NO WONDER HE IS HAVING BEHAVIOR
PROBLEMS, NO WONDER HE IS HAVING A HARD TIME. SO SOMEHOW WE HAVE TO TURN THAT AROUND A LITTLE
BIT.>>DESIRABLE, LESS DESIRABLE.
>>EXACTLY. AND I NEED TO FIND SOME THINGS THAT HE WILL
DO WITHOUT HAVING BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS SO THAT’S A STARTING SPOT.
>>SOME POINT OF SUCCESS.>>RIGHT. RIGHT.
AND GIVING THEM CHOICES CAN HELP US FIND OUT WHAT THAT IS.
>>WELL, THAT TAKES US THEN TO YOUR THIRD CATEGORY, AND THAT IS USING VISUAL TOOLS TO
REGULATE BEHAVIOR. AND WHEN WE THINK OF REGULATING BEHAVIOR,
WE THINK OF RULES, RULES THAT BRING PREDICTABILITY AND STRUCTURE TO THE LIFE OF A CHILD WITH
AUTISM. OFTENTIMES WE SEE THAT BEHAVIOR WILL DECREASE
WHEN WE POST VISUAL RULES AND EXPECTATIONS IN OUR CLASSROOM.
HOW DO WE COMMUNICATE THESE RULES? I HAD SAID IN A VISUAL WAY. HOW DO WE — HOW
DO WE DELIVER THESE RULES IN A CONCRETE WAY FOR THESE CHILDREN?
>>WELL, FIRST OF ALL, WE HAVE TO DECIDE WHAT RULES ARE IMPORTANT ONES.
IT IS VERY EASY TO THINK OF 5,000 THINGS I DON’T WANT THIS CHILD TO DO.
IT IS VERY EASY.>>DON’T HIT.
DON’T KICK.>>RIGHT.
>>DON’T. DON’T.
DON’T. DON’T!
>>EXACTLY. THE FIRST THING WE HAVE TO DO IS THINK ABOUT
WHICH THINGS ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS TO FOCUS ON, WHICH THINGS ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT
THINGS TO PAY ATTENTION TO, WHICH ONES ARE THE MOST DISRUPTIVE.
AND THEN THINK ABOUT HOW TO STATE THAT IN A POSITIVE WAY INSTEAD OF “DON’T PICK YOUR
NOSE,” YOU MIGHT SAY “YOU NEED TO USE A TISSUE.” INSTEAD OF “DON’T SCREAM,” YOU MIGHT SAY “YOU
NEED TO HAVE A QUIET VOICE.” I THINK EVERY CLASSROOM COULD HAVE A SET OF
RULES FOR ALL OF THE STUDENTS IN THE CLASSROOM, NOT JUST ONE STUDENT WITH SPECIAL NEEDS.
IN OUR CLASSROOM, THESE ARE THE CLASSROOM RULES.
FOUR OR FIVE THINGS THAT YOU NEED TO SIT IN YOUR CHAIR. YOU NEED TO DO YOUR WORK.
YOU NEED TO LISTEN TO THE TEACHER, A FEW THINGS LIKE THAT.
AND THEN IF STUDENTS ARE NOT DOING WHAT THEY ARE SUPPOSED TO BE DOING, IT IS VERY EASY
TO GO BACK AND REFER TO THE RULE. NOW, REMEMBER THE CLASSROOM RULE IS.
>>IN A VISUAL WAY, THOUGH.>>EXACTLY.
>>I THINK OFTENTIMES WE ALWAYS DO IT VERBALLY, AUDITORIALLY.
>>RIGHT. BUT WHAT YOU WANT IS YOU WANT THOSE IN A VISUAL
FORM. YOU WANT THEM POSTED RIGHT UP ON THE WALL.
AND THEN DURING THE DAY OR MULTIPLE TIMES THROUGHOUT THE DAY IF YOU NEED TO REMEMBER
WHAT THE RULES ARE, LET’S LOOK AT THEM. EVEN CHILDREN WITH LIMITED LANGUAGE OR DON’T
HAVE ANY READING SKILLS WILL LOOK AT THOSE AND BEGIN TO LEARN WHAT THOSE RULES ARE.
YOU REFER TO THEM, AND IT PRODUCES A QUICKER RESPONSE FOR THOSE CHILDREN.
SAY, OH, YES, THAT’S WHAT I NEED TO DO. ONCE YOU HAVE SOME CLASSROOM RULES IN PLACE,
THE NEXT THING THAT YOU CAN BEGIN TO LOOK AT IS WHAT RULES AN INDIVIDUAL STUDENT MAY
NEED. THAT CAN BE DETERMINED BY HIS BEHAVIOR AND
WHAT KINDS OF THINGS THAT THAT STUDENT INDIVIDUALLY NEEDS TO LEARN TO PARTICIPATE APPROPRIATELY
IN THE CLASSROOM.>>THIS TAKES US THEN TO OUR FOURTH CATEGORY
AND THAT’S IMPROVING LANGUAGE SKILLS WITH VISUAL TOOLS.
AS YOU STATED BEFORE, CHILDREN WITH — ON THE SPECTRUM OFTEN TIMES HAVE DIFFICULTY USING
THEIR LANGUAGE TO COMMUNICATE THEIR WANTS AND NEEDS.
AND WHAT TYPICALLY HAPPENS THEN IS THAT THEY RESORT TO THOSE BEHAVIORS THAT THEY HAVE USED
IN THE PAST, THAT HAVE BEEN EFFECTIVE IN GETTING THEIR NEEDS MET.
SO HOW CAN VISUAL SUPPORTS HELP THIS CHILD?>>WE NEED TO BE GOOD OBSERVERS SO THAT WE
CAN SEE WHAT LANGUAGE THEY ARE USING IN WHAT KINDS OF SITUATIONS.
MANY TIMES THESE CHILDREN WILL HAVE WHAT WE CALL DELAYED ECHOLALIA. THEY HAVE SOME LANGUAGE
STORED UP IN THIS FILING CABINET IN THEIR BRAIN.
AND WHEN SOMETHING IS OCCURRING, THEY REACH UP IN THAT FILING CABINET AND PULL OUT SOME
OF THAT MEMORIZED LANGUAGE. IT COULD BE LANGUAGE THEY HAVE HEARD OTHER
PEOPLE USE. IT COULD BE THINGS THAT THEY HAVE HEARD ON
THE FAVORITE VIDEO GAMES AND COULD BE THINGS THEY HEAR ON TV.
THEY PULL OUT SOME OF THAT LANGUAGE AND THEY TRY TO USE IT.
SOMETIMES IT CAN SOUND REALLY GOOD BECAUSE IT IS VERY APPROPRIATE FOR THE SITUATION,
AND SOMETIMES IT DOESN’T REALLY MEET WHAT THE NEED IS.
WHAT WE WANT TO DO IS TEACH THEM APPROPRIATE LANGUAGE TO MANAGE A CERTAIN SITUATION, AND
WE CAN DO THAT VISUALLY BY CREATING PICTURE CARDS OR WRITE IT OUT, DEPENDS ON WHAT THEIR
LANGUAGE LEVEL IS AND THEIR READING LEVEL IS HOW EXACTLY WE WOULD PRESENT THAT, BUT
GIVING THEM IN A WRITTEN FORM OR PRINTED FORM OR PICTURE FORM WHAT TO SAY IN CERTAIN SITUATIONS.
SO, FOR EXAMPLE, A STUDENT WHO HITS OTHER PEOPLE BECAUSE THEY ARE TOUCHING HIS TOYS,
MAYBE WE NEED SOME KIND OF A CARD THAT SAYS DON’T TOUCH MY TOYS PLEASE OR LEAVE ME ALONE
OR SOMETHING THAT WOULD BE AN APPROPRIATE THING TO SAY IN THAT SITUATION SO THAT INSTEAD
OF SAYING “DON’T HIT,” WHICH IS WHAT PEOPLE WILL DO, WHAT WE HAVE TO DO IS TEACH HIM WHAT
TO SAY THAT WILL HANDLE THAT SITUATION.>>LET’S TALK ABOUT COMMUNICATING FEELINGS.
THAT’S SUCH A COMPLEX SKILL.>>OH, IT IS.
AND I CHUCKLE A LOT AT THAT BECAUSE WHAT IS SO COMMON IS FOR PEOPLE TO HAVE THE POSTER
ON THE WALL THAT HAS HAPPY, SAD, MAD, AFRAID, AND IT HAS GOT 20 OR 30 PICTURES WITH ALL
THESE EMOTIONS. BASICALLY WHAT THEY WANT TO DO IS TEACH CHILDREN
HOW TO LABEL ALL OF THOSE PICTURES. BUT THAT — JUST BECAUSE CHILDREN CAN LABEL THOSE PICTURES,
IT DOESN’T MEAN THAT THEY CAN USE VOCABULARY EFFECTIVELY TO COMMUNICATE.
>>EXPRESS HOW THEY ARE FEELING.>>WHAT IS GOING ON FOR THEM.
>>OR TO READ THAT OF SOMEONE ELSE.>>EXACTLY.
>>AS THEIR COMMUNICATION PARTNER.>>EXACTLY.
SO WE CAN USE VISUALS TO HELP TO BEGIN TO TEACH WHAT EMOTIONS MEAN.
NOW, WHAT HAPPENS IS PEOPLE WILL SAY, WELL, HOW DO YOU FEEL?
WELL, HOW DO I FEEL? GEE, I DON’T KNOW.
THAT’S WHY A LOT OF US GO TO PSYCHOLOGISTS TO FIGURE OUT HOW DO I FEEL ABOUT THIS.
(LAUGHING) BUT WHAT WE CAN DO IS ASSIGN MEANING TO SOMETHING.
FOR EXAMPLE, IF THERE IS SOMETHING THAT IS HAPPENING, AND THAT CHILD IS REALLY MAD AND
UPSET, WHAT I WANT TO DO IS SHOW HIM A VISUAL THING, A PICTURE LIKE A MAD FACE OR SOMETHING
AND THEN SAY “THIS HAPPENED THAT MADE YOU MAD.”
IF HE LOST A TOY OR THE TOY BROKE, FOR EXAMPLE, WELL, “YOUR TOY BROKE AND THAT MADE YOU MAD.”
SO THAT YOU ARE NOT JUST LABELING A PICTURE, BUT YOU ARE ASSOCIATING THE REAL EMOTION THAT
HE HAD WITH WHAT IT IS CALLED.>>AN EVENT THAT IS REAL TO THAT CHILD.
>>THAT’S REAL TO HIM, YES. ANOTHER THING THAT FALLS IN THAT CATEGORY
IS HEALTH ISSUES AND HOW CHILDREN FEEL HEALTH-WISE. AND YOU CAN TELL A CHILD IS NOT FEELING WELL,
AND SO YOU LOOK AT HIM AND SAY “WELL, WHAT IS WRONG?”
WELL, THEY DON’T KNOW HOW TO TELL YOU WHAT IS WRONG.
BUT WHAT I LIKE TO DO IS TEACH THE MOMENT WHEN YOU REALLY KNOW WHAT A PROBLEM IS FOR
A CHILD. SO YOU KNOW HE HAS A STOMACH ACHE. HE HAS
BEEN THROWING UP, HE HAS HAD BATHROOM PROBLEMS, THAT KIND OF THING.
YOU KNOW WITHOUT A DOUBT, A HUNDRED PERCENT, HE IS HAVING A STOMACH ACHE.
SO THEN YOU USE SOMETHING VISUAL TO SAY “YOUR STOMACH HURTS.”
YOU ARE USING THAT VISUAL CUE TO ASSIGN MEANING TO WHAT HE IS ACTUALLY PHYSICALLY FEELING
AT THAT MOMENT.>>SURE.
>>THEN HE IS GOING TO BEGIN TO UNDERSTAND WHAT SOME OF THOSE EMOTION WORDS MEAN AND
WHAT SOME OF THOSE HEALTH RELATED WORDS MEAN. IT IS NOT SOMETHING THAT YOU CAN SAY I AM
GOING TO DO THIS ON TUESDAY AT 10:00 LESSON AND TALK ABOUT ALL THESE EMOTIONS.
>>RIGHT.>>BUT WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO CAPTURE THE MOMENT
IN REAL LIFE SITUATIONS AND YOU CAN ALSO CAPTURE THAT MOMENT FOR OTHER PEOPLE.
SO ANOTHER CHILD IS CRYING ABOUT SOMETHING, AND THEN YOU CAN SAY, YOU KNOW, “JOHNNY IS
CRYING BECAUSE HE HURT HIS KNEE” SO THAT YOU ARE GIVING MEANING TO WHAT THE CHILD IS DESERVING.
AND THAT, TOO, CAN REALLY HELP CHILDREN BEGIN TO UNDERSTAND READING SITUATIONS THAT OTHER
PEOPLE ARE EXPERIENCING.>>AND TEACHING EMPATHY.
>>YEAH. YEAH. BUT IT IS NOT AN EASY THING FOR THEM
TO LEARN. AND IT NEEDS TO BE STEP BY STEP.
IT NEEDS TO BE VERY CONCRETE, AND YOU REALLY NEED TO CAPTURE THE MOMENT.
>>SO THIS TAKES US TO OUR LAST CATEGORY AND THAT IS TOOLS TO SUPPORT SELF-MANAGEMENT.
AND THIS IS OUR LONG-TERM GOAL FOR ALL CHILDREN IS THAT THEY CAN INDEPENDENTLY MANAGE THEIR
OWN BEHAVIOR. SO HOW DO WE GET OUR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH — DIAGNOSED
WITH AUTISM TO THIS POINT OF SELF-MANAGEMENT?>>WELL, WE HAVE TO TEACH IT, THAT’S FOR SURE.
IN THE BEGINNING, WHAT HAPPENS IS THE TEACHERS ARE IN CONTROL.
THE TEACHERS OR PARENTS TELL THE CHILDREN WHAT TO DO, TELL THEM WHAT NOT TO DO.
IF THERE ARE THINGS IN THE ENVIRONMENT THAT ARE NOT PLEASANT OR ARE PROBLEMS, THE ADULTS
MANAGE ALL THIS STUFF. AND EVENTUALLY WHAT YOU WANT IS YOU WANT CHILDREN
TO GET TO THE POINT WHERE THEY CAN MAKE SOME DECISIONS FOR THEIR OWN WELL-BEING.
SO THAT IT IS OKAY, FOR EXAMPLE, TO MOVE TO ANOTHER PLACE IF SOMETHING IS BOTHERING ME
OR IT IS OKAY TO ASK TO BE EXCUSED FROM AN ACTIVITY, IF I AM HAVING A PROBLEM.
AN EXAMPLE OF THAT WOULD BE A STUDENT WHO MIGHT BE BOTHERED BY A LOT OF NOISE, AND HE
IS SITTING NEXT TO ANOTHER STUDENT WHO IS MAKING A LOT OF NOISE AND SCREAMING AND, YOU
KNOW, AND IT IS TOO MUCH, AND I CAN’T HANDLE IT.
MY NERVES ARE GETTING REALLY AWFUL. WELL, WHAT WOULD YOU OR I DO IF WE WERE SITTING
NEXT TO SOMEBODY REALLY BOTHERING ME?>>I WOULD PROBABLY GET UP AND MOVE.
>>I WOULD, TOO. WE DON’T ALLOW STUDENTS.
>>NO, WE DON’T, YOU ARE RIGHT.>>THE SAME PRIVILEGE, THE SAME OPPORTUNITY.
WHAT I WANT TO DO IS I WANT TO BEGIN TO TEACH STUDENTS THAT IT IS OKAY TO ASK FOR PERMISSION
OR IT IS OKAY TO GET TO DO SOMETHING DIFFERENT. AND YOU CAN DO THAT VISUALLY.
I HAVE A VISUAL CHART THAT SHOWS IF IT IS TOO NOISY, YOU CAN DO ONE OF THESE THINGS.
YOU CAN GET UP AND YOU CAN GO TO ANOTHER SEAT. YOU CAN PUT YOUR EARPHONES ON. YOU CAN LISTEN
TO MUSIC, SOME THINGS LIKE THAT. SO IT IS OKAY TO REMOVE YOURSELF FROM A SITUATION
THAT IS NOT PLEASANT. AND WE NEED TO TEACH CHILDREN HOW TO DO THAT,
BUT THE ADULTS ARE THE OTHER PART OF THAT BECAUSE THE ADULTS NEED TO GIVE CHILDREN PERMISSION
TO DO THAT.>>AND LET GO OF OUR CONTROL.
>>OF OUR CONTROL, EXACTLY.>>SO WHERE DO WE BEGIN?
I MEAN I AM SURE THIS IS A COMMON QUESTION YOU ARE ALWAYS APPROACHED WITH. BUT, GOSH,
YOU KNOW, I HAVE THIS CHILD WHO IS IN MY CLASSROOM WITH AUTISM. HOW DO I IMPLEMENT THESE VISUAL
TOOLS?>>WELL, THE FIRST THING I THINK IT IS IMPORTANT
TO CREATE AN ENVIRONMENT THAT HAS SOME STRUCTURE IN IT.
A SCHEDULE GIVES SOME STRUCTURE IN THE ENVIRONMENT, SOME CLASSROOM RULES GIVE SOME STRUCTURE IN
THE ENVIRONMENT. GIVING A STUDENT AN OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE SOME
CHOICES, TEACHING THEM SOME ROUTINES SO THAT THAT ENVIRONMENT IS PREDICTABLE SO THAT ENVIRONMENT
IS COMFORTABLE FOR THEM. THOSE FOUR THINGS RIGHT THERE CAN GO A LONG
WAY TOWARD HELPING MANAGE BEHAVIOR AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS BECAUSE IF CHILDREN HAVE AN IDEA
WHAT TO EXPECT AND THEY ARE COMFORTABLE IN THEIR ROUTINES, YOU ARE NOT GOING IT SEE AS
MANY BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS AS IF THINGS AREN’T AS CLEAR TO THEM.
BEYOND THAT, THEN YOU BEGIN TO LOOK AT WHAT OTHER KINDS OF BEHAVIOR ISSUES OR CHALLENGES
YOU ARE DEALING WITH, TRY TO LOOK AT WHAT THE CAUSE OF THAT BEHAVIOR PROBLEM IS.
IN MY BOOK “SOLVING BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN AUTISM,” I HAVE ASSESSMENT GUIDE THAT GOES THROUGH
A SERIES OF QUESTIONS ASKING ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE STUDENT AND WHAT HE IS DOING AND SO
FORTH THAT CAN HELP YOU DETERMINE WHAT IS HAPPENING, WHAT IS GOING ON AND THEN THAT
ASSESSMENT GUIDE LEADS YOU TO SOME CHOICES AND SOME IDEAS ABOUT WHAT YOU MIGHT USE IN
TERMS OF VISUAL TOOLS TO HELP SOLVE THE PROBLEM.>>LINDA, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR SHARING WITH
US ALL OF YOUR KNOWLEDGE, YOUR WEALTH OF INFORMATION. WE JUST SO APPRECIATE YOU GIVING US YOUR TIME,
AND WE ALL HAVE SO MUCH TO LEARN. HOPEFULLY THIS VIDEO WILL JUST BE A REAL RESOURCE
FOR FAMILIES AND EDUCATORS WORKING WITH YOUNG CHILDREN WITH AUTISM.
>>THANK YOU. IT IS MY PLEASURE.
>>THE MORE WE DISCOVER HOW CHILDREN UNDERSTAND, THE BETTER COMMUNICATION PARTNERS WE CAN BECOME.
THE MORE SKILLFULLY CHILDREN LEARN TO COMMUNICATE WITH OTHERS, THE MORE APPROPRIATELY AND EFFECTIVELY
THEY WILL PARTICIPATE IN LIFE ACTIVITIES. VISUAL STRATEGIES SUPPORT BOTH GOALS.
THANKS FOR WATCHING.

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  1. I love how they tried to eliminate sensory issues first in order to try and improve behavior. So many therapists don’t consider the fact that hyper and hypo sensitivity can cause bad behavior in children on the spectrum

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