5. Follow Through & Overlapping Action – 12 Principles of Animation

5. Follow Through & Overlapping Action – 12 Principles of Animation


This video is based on the 12 Principles of Animation, as described by Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston. Alright, so the next principle of animation
is called Follow Through and Overlapping Action. This is the technique of having body parts and appendages drag behind the rest of the body, and continue to move when the body stops. Follow Through and Overlapping Action are often associated with another technique called Drag. These names all describe the same
thing, but in different ways. For example, Follow Through refers to the
way parts of the body continue to move after the body has stopped. Overlapping Action describes the offset between the timing of the main body and its other parts. Drag describes the technique of delaying the movement of body parts in relation to the main body. All three of these are basically
describing different aspects of the same thing. Follow Through and Overlapping Action add a great deal of realism to a character. Here’s a character with and without
Follow Through and Overlapping Action. Basically when the main body moves, the
tip of the appendage should be the last to catch up, and when the body stops, the tip should
follow through the farthest before settling back. This is true of not just appendages, but
the whole body as well. When coming to a stop, often the body will follow through, and then come back. Just as a character needs to anticipate
his jump, he also needs to follow through his land. Sometimes the extra skin on a character can be treated as a separate entity with Drag and Follow Through. Similar to Squash and Stretch, the amount of Drag that you give something says something about its mass. The first one is like a TV antenna, while
the second one is like a feather. It’s usually easier to add the appendages after the animation of the main body is finished. When adding hair, for example, use the previous frame as an indicator of where the hair should be stretched towards. Since it has drag, it should be
dragging from where was in the last frame. In addition, make sure to let the hair follow through when the body comes to a stop. Arms are a good place to insert Follow Through and Overlapping Action. Have the elbows lead the arms actions. The elbow comes first, followed by the forearm, and then hand. This is true even when
walking. The forearms drag slightly behind the elbows, and the hands drag slightly behind the forearms. Overlapping action helps to break up an animation to make it more interesting. If we offset the movement of the arms and legs, the animation appears more graceful. If a character is standing up from the ground, we could offset the top half from the
bottom half to make it look less easy and more realistic. So that’s all I’ve got for Follow Through and overlapping Action, The next principle is called Slow In and Slow Out. Thanks for watching, and I’ll see you in the next video!

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  1. Great demonstration!

    I wanted complain about making only 5 from 12. But then realized that video are not 10-20 years old, as i tought. Thank you and keep going 🙂

  2. This is a great video series.  I teach animation at a High School and am using these to help teach the 12 principles.  Thanks again.  

  3. Hi Alen! I've been a huge fan of yours since you first started animating. I'm going to start animating soon and I'll be using Adobe Flash as well. Are there any tips you can give me or any ideas on what I should animate?

  4. These videos helps so much! Thank you! 😀

    Could you maybe make a tutorial on how to make faces "come to life"?
    Cause when I look at my own animations my faces and expressions looks so dead. Do I need to add colors/shading and details to the Eyes so it feels like the characters have a "soul". Or just add more movement to the mouth,nose,face,Eyes, etc?

  5. Man, you have no idea how these videos are helping me. I've animated before using programs like Pivot, when I was a kid, and after that I just "stopped" the dream. I'm now trying to study animation for real and the way everything works, and your videos are helping me A LOT! Thank you so much for providing these incredible lessons on YouTube. You're awesome!

  6. Follow Through has to do with arcs, overlapping has to do with time. They are not the same. When the hair gets late it's overlaping, when the hair follow the head because it's attached to it, it's follow through (or drag). You can use overlapping with or without follows.

  7. i was like… ''this guy is pretty good at animating'' and then i saw his name and was like: HOLY SHIT THIS GUY IS ANIMATOR VS. ANIMATION GUY!!!! Anyway ty for the help. Thumbs up! 😀

  8. I used the main body then loose stuff thing when I did a laser animation. I animate with flipnote studio on my DSi, and I usualy have the copy last frame thing on. so, when doing loose stuff or effects, I do the main animation, and then go back through and add more to mae it better.

  9. how does the end line of a ball connects to the start and make a perfect circle I mean is it a setting? Where? I saw in ur tutorials

  10. you know when you said that the elbow leads the the whole arm in a slam? well you're WRONG the fist leads the action, I can't do what you animated so that proves THAT!!!!!!

  11. i did that that technique and drew a moving pendulum on a rate of 24 fps its was hard but the result were great the video is inside my page

  12. Teacher appreciation makes the world of education go around. (~Helen Peters)
    really appreciate,, This Video intellectual god gift,,,,,,,,

  13. Anybody doing 3d animation should actually start animating in 2d first. Lots of things will make much more sense

  14. If I draw a person who is dancing, his hands and feet and body movements are different and different time and spacing。Should I draw his hands and feet and body on different paper?

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